Enterprise – Wikipedia

Group enterprise industrial, industrial, or skilled exercise

Enterprise is the exercise of creating one’s residing or earning profits by producing or shopping for and promoting merchandise (corresponding to items and companies).[1][2][need quotation to verify][3][4] Merely put, it’s “any exercise or enterprise entered into for revenue. It doesn’t imply it’s a firm, a company, partnership, or have any such formal group, however it might probably vary from a avenue peddler to Normal Motors.”[5]

Having a enterprise identify doesn’t separate the enterprise entity from the proprietor, which signifies that the proprietor of the enterprise is accountable and chargeable for money owed incurred by the enterprise. If the enterprise acquires money owed, the collectors can go after the proprietor’s private possessions. A enterprise construction doesn’t enable for company tax charges. The proprietor is personally taxed on all earnings from the enterprise.

The time period can be usually used colloquially (however not by legal professionals or by public officers) to consult with an organization. An organization, then again, is a separate authorized entity and offers for restricted legal responsibility, in addition to company tax charges. An organization construction is extra difficult and costly to arrange, however gives extra safety and advantages for the proprietor.


Types of enterprise possession fluctuate by jurisdiction, however a number of frequent entities exist:

  • Sole proprietorship: A sole proprietorship, also referred to as a sole dealer, is owned by one individual and operates for his or her profit. The proprietor operates the enterprise alone and will rent workers. A sole proprietor has limitless legal responsibility for all obligations incurred by the enterprise, whether or not from working prices or judgments in opposition to the enterprise. All belongings of the enterprise belong to a sole proprietor, together with, for instance, a pc infrastructure, any stock, manufacturing tools, or retail fixtures, in addition to any actual property owned by the only real proprietor.
  • Partnership: A partnership is a enterprise owned by two or extra individuals. In most types of partnerships, every associate has limitless legal responsibility for the money owed incurred by the enterprise. The three most prevalent sorts of for-profit partnerships are common partnerships, restricted partnerships, and restricted legal responsibility partnerships.[6]
  • Company: The house owners of a company have restricted legal responsibility and the enterprise has a separate authorized character from its house owners. Firms could be both government-owned or privately owned, and so they can arrange both for revenue or as nonprofit organizations. A privately owned, for-profit company is owned by its shareholders, who elect a board of administrators to direct the company and rent its managerial employees. A privately owned, for-profit company could be both privately held by a small group of people, or publicly held, with publicly traded shares listed on a inventory trade.
  • Cooperative: Sometimes called a “co-op”, a cooperative is a limited-liability enterprise that may arrange as for-profit or not-for-profit. A cooperative differs from a company in that it has members, not shareholders, and so they share decision-making authority. Cooperatives are usually categorised as both shopper cooperatives or employee cooperatives. Cooperatives are elementary to the ideology of financial democracy.
  • Restricted legal responsibility firms (LLC), restricted legal responsibility partnerships, and different particular sorts of enterprise group defend their house owners or shareholders from enterprise failure by doing enterprise beneath a separate authorized entity with sure authorized protections. In distinction, unincorporated companies or individuals engaged on their very own are often not as protected.[7][8]
  • Franchises: A franchise is a system through which entrepreneurs buy the rights to open and run a enterprise from a bigger company.[9] Franchising in america is widespread and is a significant financial powerhouse. One out of twelve retail companies in america are franchised and eight million persons are employed in a franchised enterprise.[10]
  • An organization restricted by assure: Generally used the place firms are fashioned for non-commercial functions, corresponding to golf equipment or charities. The members assure the fee of sure (often nominal) quantities if the corporate goes into bancrupt liquidation, however in any other case, they haven’t any financial rights in relation to the corporate. Such a firm is frequent in England. An organization restricted by assure could also be with or with out having share capital.
  • An organization restricted by shares: The most typical type of the corporate used for enterprise ventures. Particularly, a restricted firm is a “firm through which the legal responsibility of every shareholder is proscribed to the quantity individually invested” with companies being “the commonest instance of a restricted firm.”[11] Such a firm is frequent in England and plenty of English-speaking international locations. An organization restricted by shares could also be a
  • An organization restricted by assure with a share capital: A hybrid entity, often used the place the corporate is fashioned for non-commercial functions, however the actions of the corporate are partly funded by buyers who count on a return. Such a firm might not be fashioned within the UK, though provisions nonetheless exist in regulation for them to exist.[12]
  • A restricted legal responsibility firm: “An organization—statutorily approved in sure states—that’s characterised by restricted legal responsibility, administration by members or managers, and limitations on possession switch”, i.e., L.L.C.[11] LLC construction has been known as “hybrid” in that it “combines the traits of a company and of a partnership or sole proprietorship”. Like a company, it has restricted legal responsibility for members of the corporate, and like a partnership, it has “flow-through taxation to the members” and should be “dissolved upon the demise or chapter of a member”.[13]
  • An infinite firm with or and not using a share capital: A hybrid entity, an organization the place the legal responsibility of members or shareholders for the money owed (if any) of the corporate aren’t restricted. On this case, the doctrine of a veil of incorporation doesn’t apply.

Much less frequent sorts of firms are:

  • Corporations fashioned by letters patent: Most companies by letters patent are companies sole and never firms because the time period is usually understood right now.
  • Constitution companies: Earlier than the passing of contemporary firms laws, these have been the one sorts of firms. Now they’re comparatively uncommon, aside from very outdated firms that also survive (of which there are nonetheless many, notably many British banks), or trendy societies that fulfill a quasi-regulatory operate (for instance, the Financial institution of England is a company fashioned by a contemporary constitution).
  • Statutory firms: Comparatively uncommon right now, sure firms have been fashioned by a personal statute handed within the related jurisdiction.

Notice that “Ltd after the corporate’s identify signifies restricted firm, and PLC (public restricted firm) signifies that its shares are extensively held.”[14]

In authorized parlance, the house owners of an organization are usually known as the “members”. In an organization restricted or limitless by shares (fashioned or integrated with a share capital), this would be the shareholders. In an organization restricted by assure, this would be the guarantors. Some offshore jurisdictions have created particular types of offshore firm in a bid to draw enterprise for his or her jurisdictions. Examples embrace “segregated portfolio firms” and restricted goal firms.

There are, nonetheless, many, many sub-categories of sorts of firm that may be fashioned in varied jurisdictions on the earth.

Corporations are additionally generally distinguished into public firms and non-public firms for authorized and regulatory functions. Public firms are firms whose shares could be publicly traded, usually (though not all the time) on a inventory trade which imposes itemizing necessities/Itemizing Guidelines as to the issued shares, the buying and selling of shares and a future subject of shares to assist bolster the popularity of the trade or explicit market of trade. Personal firms wouldn’t have publicly traded shares, and sometimes include restrictions on transfers of shares. In some jurisdictions, non-public firms have most numbers of shareholders.

A guardian firm is an organization that owns sufficient voting inventory in one other agency to regulate administration and operations by influencing or electing its board of administrators; the second firm being deemed as a subsidiary of the guardian firm. The definition of a guardian firm differs by jurisdiction, with the definition usually being outlined by the use of legal guidelines coping with firms in that jurisdiction.


  • Agriculture, such because the domestication of fish, animals, and livestock, in addition to lumber, oil and mining companies that extract pure sources and uncooked supplies, corresponding to wooden, petroleum, pure fuel, ores, vegetation or minerals.
  • Monetary companies companies embrace banks, brokerage corporations, credit score unions, bank cards, insurance coverage firms, asset and funding firms corresponding to non-public fairness corporations, non-public fairness funds, actual property funding trusts, sovereign wealth funds, pension funds, mutual funds, index funds, and hedge funds, inventory exchanges, and different firms that generate income by funding and administration of capital.
  • Leisure firms and mass media businesses generate income primarily from the sale of mental property. They embrace movie studios and manufacturing homes, mass media firms corresponding to cable tv networks, on-line digital media businesses, expertise businesses, cellular media retailers, newspapers, e book and journal publishing homes.
  • Industrial producers produce merchandise, both from uncooked supplies or from part components, then export the completed merchandise at a revenue. They embrace tangible items corresponding to automobiles, buses, medical units, glass, or plane.
  • Actual property companies promote, make investments, assemble and develop properties, together with land, residential houses, and different buildings.
  • Retailers, wholesalers, and distributors act as middlemen and get items produced by producers to the meant customers; they make their income by marking up their costs. Most shops and catalog firms are distributors or retailers.
  • Transportation companies corresponding to railways, airways, transport firms that ship items and people to their locations for a payment.
  • Sports activities organizations are concerned in producing, facilitating, selling, or organizing any exercise, expertise, or enterprise enterprise targeted on sports activities. They make their income by promoting items and companies which can be sports activities associated.
  • Utilities produce public companies corresponding to water, electrical energy, waste administration or sewage therapy. These industries are often operated beneath the cost of a public authorities.
  • Service companies supply intangible items or companies and usually cost for labor or different companies offered to authorities, to customers, or to different companies. Inside decorators, beauticians, hair stylists, make-up artists, tanning salons, laundromats, dry cleaners, and pest controllers are service companies.



Accounting is the measurement, processing, and communication of economic details about financial entities[15][16] corresponding to companies and companies. The trendy subject was established by the Italian mathematician Luca Pacioli in 1494.[17] Accounting, which has been known as the “language of enterprise”,[18] measures the outcomes of a corporation’s financial actions and conveys this info to a wide range of customers, together with buyers, collectors, administration, and regulators.[19] Practitioners of accounting are often called accountants. The phrases “accounting” and “monetary reporting” are sometimes used as synonyms.


Finance is a subject that offers with the research of investments. It consists of the dynamics of belongings and liabilities over time beneath situations of various levels of uncertainty and danger. Finance can be outlined because the science of cash administration. Finance goals to cost belongings based mostly on their danger stage and their anticipated price of return. Finance could be damaged into three totally different sub classes: public finance, company finance, and private finance.


Manufacturing is the manufacturing of merchandise to be used or sale utilizing labour and machines, instruments, chemical and organic processing, or formulation. The time period might consult with a variety of human exercise, from handicraft to excessive tech, however is mostly utilized to industrial manufacturing, through which uncooked supplies are remodeled into completed items on a big scale.

Advertising and marketing

Advertising and marketing is outlined by the American Advertising and marketing Affiliation as “the exercise, set of establishments, and processes for creating, speaking, delivering, and exchanging choices which have worth for purchasers, purchasers, companions, and society at giant.”[20] The time period developed from the unique which means which referred actually to going to a market to purchase or promote items or companies. Advertising and marketing ways embrace promoting in addition to figuring out product pricing.

With the rise in know-how, advertising is additional divided into a category known as digital advertising. It’s advertising services utilizing digital applied sciences.

Analysis and growth

Analysis and growth consult with actions in reference to company or authorities innovation. Analysis and growth represent the primary stage of growth of a possible new service or product. Analysis and growth are very troublesome to handle because the defining characteristic of the analysis is that the researchers have no idea upfront precisely tips on how to accomplish the specified end result.[citation needed]


Accidents value companies billions of {dollars} yearly.[21] Research have proven how firm acceptance and implementation of complete security and well being administration techniques scale back incidents, insurance coverage prices, and staff’ compensation claims.[22] New applied sciences, like wearable security units[23] and obtainable on-line security coaching, proceed to be developed to encourage employers to spend money on safety past the “canary within the coal mine” and scale back the fee to companies of defending their workers.

Gross sales

Gross sales are exercise associated to promoting or the variety of items or companies offered in a given time interval. Gross sales are sometimes built-in with all strains of enterprise and are key to a firms’ success.[24]


The environment friendly and efficient operation of a enterprise, and research of this topic, is named administration. The main branches of administration are monetary administration, advertising administration, human useful resource administration, strategic administration, manufacturing administration, operations administration, service administration, and knowledge know-how administration.[citation needed]

Homeowners might handle their companies themselves, or make use of managers to take action for them. Whether or not they’re house owners or workers, managers administer three main parts of the enterprise’ worth: monetary sources, capital (tangible sources), and human sources. These sources are administered in a minimum of six practical areas: authorized contracting, manufacturing or service manufacturing, advertising, accounting, financing, and human sources.[citation needed]

Restructuring state enterprises

In current a long time, states modeled a few of their belongings and enterprises after enterprise enterprises. In 2003, for instance, the Individuals’s Republic of China modeled 80{5667a53774e7bc9e4190cccc01624aae270829869c681dac1da167613dca7d05} of its state-owned enterprises on a company-type administration system.[25] Many state establishments and enterprises in China and Russia have remodeled into joint-stock firms, with a part of their shares being listed on public inventory markets.

Enterprise course of administration (BPM) is a holistic administration method targeted on aligning all facets of a corporation with the needs and desires of purchasers. BPM makes an attempt to enhance processes repeatedly. It could actually, subsequently, be described as a “course of optimization course of”. It’s argued that BPM allows organizations to be extra environment friendly, efficient and able to change than a functionally targeted, conventional hierarchical administration method.[who?]

Group and regulation

Time required to begin a enterprise in 2017[26]

Most authorized jurisdictions specify the types of possession {that a} enterprise can take, making a physique of economic regulation for every sort.

The main elements affecting how a enterprise is organized are often:

  • The dimensions and scope of the enterprise agency and its construction, administration, and possession, broadly analyzed within the concept of the agency. Usually, a smaller enterprise is extra versatile, whereas bigger companies, or these with wider possession or extra formal buildings, will often are typically organized as companies or (much less usually) partnerships. As well as, a enterprise that needs to lift cash on a inventory market or to be owned by a variety of individuals will usually be required to undertake a particular authorized kind to take action.
  • The sector and nation. Personal profit-making companies are totally different from government-owned our bodies. In some international locations, sure companies are legally obliged to be organized in sure methods.
  • Tax benefits. Totally different buildings are handled in another way in tax regulation and will have benefits for that reason.
  • Disclosure and compliance necessities. Totally different enterprise buildings could also be required to make much less or extra info public (or report it to related authorities) and could also be certain to adjust to totally different guidelines and laws.

Many companies are operated by a separate entity corresponding to a company or a partnership (both fashioned with or with out restricted legal responsibility). Most authorized jurisdictions enable individuals to prepare such an entity by submitting sure constitution paperwork with the related Secretary of State or equal and complying with sure different ongoing obligations. The relationships and authorized rights of shareholders, restricted companions, or members are ruled partly by the constitution paperwork and partly by the regulation of the jurisdiction the place the entity is organized. Usually talking, shareholders in a company, restricted companions in a restricted partnership, and members in a restricted legal responsibility firm are shielded from private legal responsibility for the money owed and obligations of the entity, which is legally handled as a separate “individual”. Which means except there may be misconduct, the proprietor’s personal possessions are strongly protected in regulation if the enterprise doesn’t succeed.

The place two or extra people personal a enterprise collectively however have failed to prepare a extra specialised type of car, they are going to be handled as a common partnership. The phrases of a partnership are partly ruled by a partnership settlement if one is created, and partly by the regulation of the jurisdiction the place the partnership is situated. No paperwork or submitting is critical to create a partnership, and with out an settlement, the relationships and authorized rights of the companions will likely be fully ruled by the regulation of the jurisdiction the place the partnership is situated. A single one who owns and runs a enterprise is usually often called a sole proprietor, whether or not that individual owns it straight or by a formally organized entity. Relying on the enterprise wants, an adviser can determine what variety is proprietorship will likely be most fitted.

Just a few related elements to contemplate in deciding tips on how to function a enterprise embrace:

  1. Normal companions in a partnership (aside from a restricted legal responsibility partnership), plus anybody who personally owns and operates a enterprise with out making a separate authorized entity, are personally chargeable for the money owed and obligations of the enterprise.
  2. Usually, companies are required to pay tax similar to “actual” individuals. In some tax techniques, this may give rise to so-called double taxation, as a result of first the company pays tax on the revenue, after which when the company distributes its income to its house owners, people have to incorporate dividends of their earnings after they full their private tax returns, at which level a second layer of earnings tax is imposed.
  3. In most international locations, there are legal guidelines which deal with small companies in another way from giant ones. They might be exempt from sure authorized submitting necessities or labor legal guidelines, have simplified procedures in specialised areas, and have simplified, advantageous, or barely totally different tax therapy.
  4. “Going public” by a course of often called an preliminary public providing (IPO) signifies that a part of the enterprise will likely be owned by members of the general public. This requires the group as a definite entity, to reveal info to the general public, and adhering to a tighter set of legal guidelines and procedures. Most public entities are companies which have offered shares, however more and more there are additionally public LLC’s that promote items (generally additionally known as shares), and different extra unique entities as nicely, corresponding to, for instance, actual property funding trusts within the US, and unit trusts within the UK. A common partnership can not “go public”.

Business regulation

A really detailed and well-established physique of guidelines that developed over a really lengthy time period applies to industrial transactions. The necessity to regulate commerce and commerce and resolve enterprise disputes helped form the creation of regulation and courts. The Code of Hammurabi dates again to about 1772 BC for instance and comprises provisions that relate, amongst different issues, to transport prices and dealings between retailers and brokers.[27] The phrase “company” derives from the Latin corpus, which means physique, and the Maurya Empire in Iron-Age India accorded authorized rights to enterprise entities.[28]

In lots of international locations, it’s troublesome to compile all of the legal guidelines that may have an effect on a enterprise right into a single reference supply. Legal guidelines can govern the therapy of labour and worker relations, employee safety and security, discrimination on the idea of age, gender, incapacity, race, and in some jurisdictions, sexual orientation, and the minimal wage, in addition to unions, employee compensation, and dealing hours and go away.

Some specialised companies may require licenses, both as a consequence of legal guidelines governing entry into sure trades, occupations or professions, that require particular schooling or to lift income for native governments. Professions that require particular licenses embrace regulation, drugs, piloting plane, promoting liquor, radio broadcasting, promoting funding securities, promoting used automobiles, and roofing. Native jurisdictions may require particular licenses and taxes simply to function a enterprise.

Some companies are topic to ongoing particular regulation, for instance, public utilities, funding securities, banking, insurance coverage, broadcasting, aviation, and well being care suppliers. Environmental laws are additionally very complicated and may have an effect on many companies.


When companies want to lift cash (known as capital), they often supply securities on the market.

Capital could also be raised by non-public means, by an preliminary public providing or IPO on a inventory trade, or in different methods.

Main inventory exchanges embrace the Shanghai Inventory Change, Singapore Change, Hong Kong Inventory Change, New York Inventory Change and NASDAQ (the USA), the London Inventory Change (UK), the Tokyo Inventory Change (Japan), and Bombay Inventory Change (India). Most international locations with capital markets have a minimum of one.

Companies which have gone public are topic to laws regarding their inner governance, corresponding to how government officers’ compensation is decided, and when and the way info is disclosed to shareholders and to the general public. In america, these laws are primarily applied and enforced by america Securities and Change Fee (SEC). Different western nations have comparable regulatory our bodies. The laws are applied and enforced by the China Securities Regulation Fee (CSRC) in China. In Singapore, the regulatory authority is the Financial Authority of Singapore (MAS), and in Hong Kong, it’s the Securities and Futures Fee (SFC).

The proliferation and rising complexity of the legal guidelines governing enterprise have compelled rising specialization in company regulation. It’s not remarkable for sure sorts of company transactions to require a workforce of 5 to 10 attorneys as a consequence of sprawling regulation. Business regulation spans common company regulation, employment and labor regulation, health-care regulation, securities regulation, mergers and acquisitions, tax regulation, worker profit plans, meals and drug regulation, mental property regulation on copyrights, patents, emblems, telecommunications regulation, and financing.

Different sorts of capital sourcing embrace crowdsourcing on the Web, enterprise capital, financial institution loans, and debentures.

Mental property

Companies usually have vital “mental property” that wants safety from opponents for the corporate to remain worthwhile. This might require patents, copyrights, emblems, or preservation of commerce secrets and techniques. Most companies have names, logos, and comparable branding strategies that would profit from trademarking. Patents and copyrights in america are largely ruled by federal regulation, whereas commerce secrets and techniques and trademarking are principally a matter of state regulation. Due to the character of mental property, a enterprise wants safety in each jurisdiction through which they’re involved about opponents. Many international locations are signatories to worldwide treaties regarding mental property, and thus firms registered in these international locations are topic to nationwide legal guidelines certain by these treaties. So as to defend commerce secrets and techniques, firms might require workers to signal noncompete clauses which can impose limitations on an worker’s interactions with stakeholders, and opponents.

Commerce union

A commerce union (or labor union) is a company of staff who’ve come collectively to attain frequent objectives corresponding to defending the integrity of its commerce, enhancing security requirements, reaching greater pay and advantages corresponding to well being care and retirement, rising the variety of workers an employer assigns to finish the work, and higher working situations. The commerce union, by its management, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file members) and negotiates labor contracts (collective bargaining) with employers. The most typical goal of those associations or unions is “sustaining or enhancing the situations of their employment”.[29] This may increasingly embrace the negotiation of wages, work guidelines, grievance procedures, guidelines governing hiring, firing, and promotion of staff, advantages, office security and insurance policies.

See additionally


  1. ^ Evaluate: American Heritage Dictionary “enterprise [:] 1. The exercise of shopping for and promoting commodities, merchandise, or companies”.
  2. ^ Longman Enterprise English Dictionary
  3. ^ Longman Dictionary of Modern English “enterprise [:] 1 […] the exercise of earning profits by producing or shopping for and promoting items, or offering companies”.
  4. ^ Oxford Dwelling Dictionaries “enterprise [:] 2 The observe of creating one’s residing by partaking in commerce.”
  5. ^ Burton’s Authorized Thesaurus, 4E. S.v. “enterprise.” Retrieved April 1, 2018 from https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/enterprise
  6. ^ Holloway, S. S.; Parmigiani, A. (2014). “Buddies and Earnings Do not Combine: The Efficiency Implications of Repeated Partnerships”. Academy of Administration Journal. 59 (2): 460. doi:10.5465/amj.2013.0581.
  7. ^ US Small Enterprise Administration
  8. ^ Small Enterprise Chamber of Commerce, Inc.
  9. ^ Definition of a Franchise Enterprise
  10. ^ hWelsh, Dianne H. B.; Desplaces, David E.; Davis, fAmy E. (2011). “A Comparability of Retail Franchises, Impartial Companies, and Bought Present Impartial Enterprise Startups: Classes from the Kauffman Agency Survey”. Journal of Advertising and marketing Channels. 18: 3. doi:10.1080/1046669X.2011.533109.
  11. ^ a b Black’s Regulation and lee Dictionary. Second Pocket Version. Bryan A. Garner, editor. West. 2001.
  12. ^ Corporations Act 2006
  13. ^ root. “Restricted Legal responsibility Firm (LLC) Definition – Investopedia”. Investopedia.
  14. ^ “Investopedia – Public Restricted Firm”.
  15. ^ Needles, Belverd E.; Powers, Marian (2013). Ideas of Monetary Accounting. Monetary Accounting Sequence (12 ed.). Cengage Studying.
  16. ^ Accounting Analysis Bulletins No. 7 Experiences of Committee on Terminology (Report). Committee on Accounting Process, American Institute of Accountants. November 1940. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
  17. ^ DIWAN, Jaswith. ACCOUNTING CONCEPTS & THEORIES. LONDON: MORRE. pp. 001–002. id# 94452.
  18. ^ Peggy Bishop Lane on Why Accounting Is the Language of Enterprise, Data @ Wharton Excessive College, September 23, 2013, retrieved 25 December 2013
  19. ^ “Division of Accounting”. Foster College of Enterprise. Foster College of Enterprise. 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
  20. ^ Advertising and marketing definition accepted in October 2007 by the American Advertising and marketing Affiliation: [1] Archived 2010-12-27 on the Wayback Machine.
  21. ^ Leigh, J. (2011). Financial Burden of Occupational Damage and Sickness in america. Milbank Quarterly, 89(4), 728-772. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0009.2011.00648.x
  22. ^ Rowe, Kelly P. (2007). OSHA and small companies: A successful mixture: When small companies faucet into OSHA’s many sources, everybody advantages. Occupational Hazards, 69(3), 33.
  23. ^ Goldberg, S. (2016). Enterprise Technical: Wearable Units at Work. Enterprise Insurance coverage, 50(2), 1.
  24. ^ “How To Manage Your Advertising and marketing Division In The Digital Age”. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  25. ^ Main Industries. Individuals.com
  26. ^ “Time required to begin a enterprise”. Our World in Knowledge. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  27. ^ “Regulation Code of Hammurabi”.
  28. ^ Vikramaditya S. Khanna. “The Financial Historical past of the Company Type in Historical India” (PDF). Archived from the unique (PDF) on 2013-10-19.
  29. ^ Webb, Sidney; Webb, Beatrice (1920). Historical past of Commerce Unionism. Longmans and Co. London. ch. I

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